Development of Internally-Calibrated, Direct Detection Millimeter-Wave Radiometers to Improve Remote Sensing of Wet Tropospheric Path Delay
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Satellite ocean altimeters measure the sea surface height by emitting a radar pulse and measuring the time for it to propagate to the surface, bounce off and return to the satellite. Assuming speed-of-light propagation, the sea surface height can be determined. However, water vapor in the atmosphere, which is highly variable both temporally and spatially, reduces the propagation speed of these radar signals, in turn increasing the round-trip radar propagation time, leading to substantial errors in the sea surface height estimation. This delay in the arrival time of radar pulse returns is referred ...