Development of a multiscale model of the lumbar spine : application for persons with a lower-limb amputation
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Low back pain (LBP) is a large problem in the general population and especially among people with a lower-limb amputation (LLA). The primary causes of LBP for people with LLA are whole-body kinematic and muscle asymmetries. However, the sources of LBP are known to exist at the tissue-level such as within the intervertebral discs or facet joint capsules. No previous study has identified the connection between determining the source of pain at the tissue-level and the cause of pain at the whole-body level. Identification of this interconnectivity is required for better understanding of LBP and ...