Computational fluid dynamic modeling of a secondary lead reverberatory furnace
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Over half of lead production worldwide comes from secondary sources. The main secondary source of lead is lead-acid batteries. Currently, over 99% of all lead based batteries in North America are recycled, amounting to 1.7 million short tons of lead annually. Secondary lead battery scrap is recycled through a combination of physical concentration, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. A common type of furnace used for the pyrometallurgical steps in this process is a directly fired reverberatory furnace. In the directly fired reverberatory furnace, the burden (the solid feed ...