Controlled spalling in (100)-oriented germanium by electroplating
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This work investigates controlled spalling as a method to exfoliate thin films of various thickness from rigid, crystalline germanium (Ge) substrates and to enable substrate reuse for III-V single junction photovoltaic devices. Technological limitations impeding wide-spread adoption of flexible electronics and high-material-cost photovoltaic devices have motivated significant interest in a method to remove devices from their substrates. DC magnetron sputtering has been previously utilized to remove semiconductor devices of various thicknesses from Ge substrates, but this method is expensive and ...