Microbial ecology of activated sludge and granular activated carbon communities treating oil and gas produced water
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In recent years, oil and gas (O&G) exploration has grown exponentially in the United States. Development in the industrial sector provokes competition with agricultural and public entities for natural resources, particularly the fresh water cycle. Typically sourced from local water supplies, energy production waste streams – specifically produced water – are disposed of through deep well injection. Implementation of advanced treatment technologies in the O&G industry presents a unique opportunity to maximize water reuse while minimizing environmental damage from increased seismic activity ...