Residual stress quantification of external attachment welding applications to evaluate the need of post-weld heat treatment
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Investigated since the 1950s, welding-induced tensile residual stresses have inherently imposed challenges in almost all fusion welding processes. Such residual stresses can be as high as the local yield strength in a weld metal and surrounding HAZ and are well identified to promote several service failures such as brittle fracture, fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Petrochemical industry has almost always utilized post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) to relieve welding residual stresses in weldments that are exposed to processing environments that can potentially induce SCC to maintain ...