Evaluation of toxicity and bioavailability of metal mixtures to two freshwater invertebrates
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Multiple metals are often present in natural water systems, leading to mixture toxicity that currently is difficult to predict. To help develop predictive toxicity models, the toxicity of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn was measured in individual-metal, binary, and ternary mixtures in acute toxicity tests following USEPA protocol using Daphnia magna neonates (< 24 hour old). Toxicity tests in which D. magna were exposed to binary mixtures of Ni combined with Cd, Cu, or Zn demonstrated a protective effect (Cd-Ni), a greater-than-additive effect (Cu-Ni), and a slightly less-than-additive toxic effect (Ni-Zn). ...