Understanding efficiency improvement in organic photovoltaics with molecular modifiers
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Molecular dipole modification of metal oxides has become popular to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic devices through charge transport level matching to the bulk heterojunction species. Properly tuning the work function of a device interlayer can increase charge collection from the active layer, ultimately raising the efficiency of the device. Here a novel type of molecule is introduced for modulating the work function of charge transport layers in organic photovoltaics: the conjugated phosphonic acid. Due to its longer and double-bonded linkage, as well as its multi-dentate ...