Environmental characterization, reclamation, and community monitoring of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) impacts to surface waters in Suriname
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Mining operations and other extractive industries are a necessary component of the global economy, providing the materials necessary for the manufacture of numerous products. Although global mineral holdings have become increasingly concentrated among a few large mining corporations, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) are ubiquitous in rural areas of developing countries. It is estimated that over 13 million individuals practice ASM worldwide corresponding to direct and indirect livelihood dependence for as many as 100 million people (ILO 2003). Small-scale miners regularly engage in ...