Experimental and theoretical study of water and solute transport mechanisms in organic-rich carbonate mudrocks
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Physicochemical processes behind transport mechanisms of water and solute in shales have been extensively studied for over fifty years. In hydraulic fracturing or low-salinity waterflooding operations, fresh water with a relatively small concentration of ions is injected into the formation through the use of large hydraulic heads from the surface. For both techniques, the fluid travels through the various scales of artificial and natural fractures until it reaches the matrix of the rock. At that point, the fluid interacts with the rock surfaces amongst the micro-scale fractures and the matrix. ...