Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) characteristics in metal-rich waters and implications for copper aquatic toxicity
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Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) originating from abandoned hardrock mines characteristically has high concentrations of potentially toxic metals, such as Cu, as well as dissolved and particulate forms of Al and Fe. Free copper (Cu2+) is a well-known contributor to heavy metal toxicity in aquatic systems. The bioavailability of Cu2+ is influenced by aqueous complexation, with humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) being especially important ligands. This research focused on examining changes in the binding affinity of fulvic acid (FA) that result from its chemical fractionation, which occurs by FA sorption ...