Long-term fouling and performance of forward osmosis membranes treating activated sludge and oil and gas produced water
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The thesis is comprised of two studies that compared the performance and fouling of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polyamide thin film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. The first study used CTA and TFC membranes to treat high-salinity and low-salinity activated sludge for 100 days, and the second study used CTA and improved TFC membranes to treat oil and gas produced water for three weeks. Both studies evaluated virgin and fouled membrane performance by measuring water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF), and specific reverse salt flux (SRSF). Membrane autopsies were performed to understand ...