Contribution of engineered nano-materials biological and physicochemical properties to cellular stress and toxicity
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Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming more commonly used in numerous consumer and medical applications, thereby increasing human exposure. To name a few uses, NPs are utilized as protective and antibacterial coatings, drug delivery vehicles, electronics, medical imaging, treatment of a wide range of diseases, cosmetics, and tissue engineering [1-8]. NPs are also found as a manufacturing byproduct and found from combustion processes, which poses a health hazard [9, 10]. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines NPs as particles with a size of 1 – 100 nm, and the toxicity guidelines state they ...