The role of Tetherin/BST-2 in retroviral infection in vivo
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HIV-1 restriction factors are host proteins that can directly inhibit HIV-1 replication. Studies on the HIV-1 encoded Vpu protein led to the identification of Tetherin/BST-2, a type I IFN-regulated restriction factor that blocks the release of nascent virus particles during the viral budding process. HIV-1 utilizes Vpu to counteract Tetherin, and Vpu-deficient HIV-1 virus particles are “tethered” to the cell surface. Due to this potent restriction of virus release, initial models proposed that Tetherin’s role was to limit the spread of HIV-1 infection. However, cell culture studies suggested ...