Systematics and life history studies of Rocky Mountains butterflies
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This note discusses previously-unrecognized adult wing pattern forms of Papilio multicaudata Kirby, a discussion of ecological causes of these forms, and the reasons that the name pusillus Austin & J. Emmel is an early seasonal form and not a subspecies. Form minimulticaudata is tiny in size, and is caused by starvation of second-generation larvae in the lower mountains the previous late summer. This research was started when Michael S. Fisher was studying the forms he was observing. As a result, the tiny form minimulticaudata was named by Fisher & Scott in Fisher (2012), who summarized the ...