Two-dimensional adaptive block Kalman filtering of SAR imagery
Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.
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Speckle effects are commonly observed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In airborne SAR systems the effect of this degradation reduces the accuracy of detection substantially. Thus, the elimination of this noise is an important task in SAR imaging systems. In this paper a new method for speckle noise removal is introduced using 2-D adaptive block Kalman filtering (ABKF). The image process is represented by an autoregressive (AR) model with nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) region of support. New 2-D Kalman filtering equations are derived which take into account not only the effect of speckles as a multiplicative noise but also those of the additive receiver thermal noise and the blur. This method assumes local stationarity within a processing window, whereas the image can be assumed to be globally nonstationary. A recursive identification process using the stochastic Newton approach is also proposed which can be used on-line to estimate the filter parameters based upon the information within each new block of the image. Simulation results on several images are provided to indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method when used to remove the effects of speckle noise as well as that of the additive noise.