Towards understanding the processes that govern variability in the Southern Hemisphere
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The climate at extratropical latitudes is strongly a result of the behavior of the zonal mean zonal wind and its inherent variability. This variability is dominated largely by the north-south fluctuation of the midlatitude jet and is identified in the Southern Hemisphere as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Recent observations have shown a tendency of the jet to move poleward due to, in part, the forcing associated with stratospheric cooling due to ozone loss and the tropical tropospheric warming from increasing greenhouse gases. Two dominant processes drive variability in the midlatitude jet: ...