Coupled continuum pipe-flow modeling of karst groundwater flow in the Madison limestone aquifer, South Dakota
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Karst carbonate aquifers are traditionally difficult to model due to extreme permeability heterogeneities and non-Darcian flow. New modeling techniques and test applications are needed to improve simulation capabilities for these complex groundwater systems. This study evaluates the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer near Rapid City, South Dakota. The Madison carbonate formation is an important source of groundwater underlying Rapid City. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) groundwater model of the Madison aquifer was modified to ...