Modeling in a three-dimensional world : whitewater park hydraulics and their impact on aquatic habitat in Colorado
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Whitewater parks (WWPs) are becoming more popular in Colorado rivers and streams, but the effects of WWPs on aquatic habitat and fish passage are poorly understood. This study investigated the use of a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model (FLOW-3D®) for assessing effects of WWPs on aquatic habitat. The objective of this study was to compare modeled habitat quality to actual fish biomass and to examine the utility of 3-D modeling (vs. two-dimensional (2-D) modeling) in this hydraulically-complex system. Two sections of a small river in Colorado were modeled: one natural section, and one ...