Rewards are categories
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The neural mechanisms of reinforcement learning are becoming increasingly clear following years of exciting and intense inquiry. However, due to their reliance on primary and secondary reward concepts, reinforcement learning theories can't account for two related facts. One, rewarding effects are observed in the absence of primary and secondary reinforcers (e.g., novelty, information and fictive outcomes). Two, value can be transferred by inference; no pairing is needed (e.g., stimulus generalization, optimistic firing). These atypical, or "cognitive rewards", have received little direct ...