On the balanced response of the troposphere to variability in the extratropical stratosphere
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Variability in the extratropical stratosphere arises primarily through wave-mean flow interactions, with the source of these waves lying in the troposphere. However, recent evidence suggests that the troposphere also responds to variability in the extratropical stratosphere, with persistent anomalies in the stratospheric circulation accompanying same-signed anomalies at tropospheric levels. The balanced response of the atmosphere to anomalous stratospheric wave breaking and heating qualitatively describes how the troposphere should respond to stratospheric variability. However, the balanced ...