Barriers to establishment and growth of cottonwoods in Yellowstone National Park's northern range
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Riparian ecosystems play a vital role in water storage, sediment retention, nutrient and contaminant removal, and wildlife habitat in western North American landscapes. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) trees form the principle riparian forest type in the semi-arid western United States and therefore understanding their abundance and processes affecting establishment and survival are critical. Within Yellowstone National Park (YNP) herbivory by ungulates shapes ecosystem structure and function of riparian forests. However, our understanding of the interactions between herbivores and cottonwoods is largely ...