The role of domestic ducks in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses in Indonesia
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Wild waterfowl and aquatic birds serve as the natural reservoir host for influenza A viruses. As the reservoir, wild waterfowl play an important role in the persistence and transmission of influenza viruses among bird populations and to other mammalian species. In many Asian countries, domestic ducks are raised for meat and egg production. Some of these domestic ducks are ranged on rice paddies or post-harvest rice fields. The ducks provide service to the rice fields by fertilizing the field with feces and aerating the field by swimming and walking through the ground cover. Additionally, ...