Intense plasma discharge source at 13.5 nm for extreme-ultraviolet lithography
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We measured an emission of 6 mJ/pulse at 13.5 nm produced by the Li2+ Lyman-α transition excited by a fast capillary discharge, using a lithium hydride capillary. 75% of the energy emanated from a spot size of 0.6 mm. The emission is narrow band and would thus be useful in extreme-ultraviolet lithography imaging systems that use Mo:Si multilayer mirrors. The output within the bandwidth of Mo:Si mirrors was comparable with that of a laser-produced plasma (LPP), and the wall plug efficiency of 0.1% was nearly an order of magnitude better than that of a LPP.