Paleo-feedbacks in the hydrological and energy cycles in the community climate system model 3
Burt, Melissa Ann
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This research focuses on the joint variability of the hydrological and energy cycles for the atmosphere and lower boundary and climate feedbacks associated with these changes at the Last Glacial Maximum. The LGM simulated climate experiences a global cooling of 4.9 K compared to the PI climate, with greatest cooling in the high latitudes of both hemispheres. Additional cooling also exists over the continental ice sheets in North America, Northern Europe, and Antarctica. Precipitation and evaporation are reduced by 10%, and precipitable water by 20%, compared to conditions at PI. Overall, from LGM to PI the changes in clouds are weak. The water vapor, ice-albedo, and cloud feedbacks act to amplify the climate change from LGM to PI. The positive water vapor and ice-albedo feedbacks account for 5.04 W m-2 K-1 and 2.38 W m-2 K-1, respectively of the climate change. The cloud feedbacks produces -2.83 of the change. An interesting and unexpected result was that the sign of the ice-albedo feedback changed regionally and is driven by changes in ocean basin size. Combined, the radiative feedbacks from LGM to PI act to amplify the climate change by 5.67 W m-2 K-1 and are balanced by an increase in surface evaporation.