Capacity building for flood management in developing countries under climate change
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Climate change will bring new flood threats, especially in developing countries. In addition, the contexts surrounding flood management have been shifting globally. If developing countries are to address serious flood risks caused by insufficient infrastructure and lack of legislation and enforcement programs, they must improve institutional, organizational, and individual capacities for flood management systems. The research for this dissertation explored how to alleviate flood damage and achieve sound economic growth in developing countries in the context of a global paradigm shift in flood management under climate change with a focus on capacity building. The research established a conceptual model to clarify the relationships between flood risks, elements of flood management systems, and the influence of institutional, organizational, and individual capacities on the system elements. The research also offered a tool to evaluate how capacity affects the systems and to identify the needs for capacity building. Additionally, the research established and tested capacity building methodologies for flood management in developing countries under climate change, including both principles and the procedures to implement them. Case studies in Jakarta, Indonesia and the Tokai region, Japan were analyzed to identify capacity building needs and constraints in developing countries as well as factors determining effectiveness of flood management systems. They showed that while institutional arrangements are essential for effective flood management, their effectiveness depends on the capacity to implement them. While infrastructure may mitigate flood damage, the limitations of infrastructure must be recognized and should not induce complacency. Awareness of flood threats and management by the local community is a key issue and data accessibility is fundamental to the flood management process. The conceptual model used here identified capacity-related flood management problems and their interrelationships clarified the needs for capacity building at institutional, organizational, and individual levels throughout the flood management processes. Case studies in Manila, the Philippines and the Nyando river basin, Kenya led to the following principles of capacity building for flood management in developing countries under climate change: 1. Capacity to implement both structural and non-structural measures needs to be developed, 2. All institutional, organizational, and individual capacity is crucial, 3. Leadership and decision-making capacity are more necessary under increased flood risks, and 4. Capacity to secure the `three Es' (effectiveness, efficiency, and equity) is the key to increasing feasibility of flood management means. Then, capacity building procedures to implement the principles were formulated, which consisted of the processes of capacity assessments; integration of resources including formulation and prioritization of alternatives and implementation of priority measures; and human resources development to make the most use of the resources. The case studies also suggested that complexity of problems and levels of self-sufficiency differed between urban and rural areas regardless of the shared necessity of comprehensive capacity building. Following the recent paradigm shift on public policy and the increasing complexity and uncertainty under climate change, the requirements to identify and solve problems in a comprehensive and integrated manner are even more important. Considering that problems in developing countries are more complex and intertwined than those in developed countries, the trade-offs between the requirements for flood management and the need to cope with flood risks in developing countries take on greater urgency. Given these concerns, the research offered the tools to assess and improve flood management systems. Institutional, organizational, and individual capacity building based on appropriate problem identification and needs clarification is time-consuming yet ultimately, it is the fastest and the most inevitable road for effective flood management under climate change.
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