Electron-reflector strategy for CdTe thin-film solar cells
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The CdTe thin-film solar cell has a large absorption coefficient and high theoretical efficiency. Moreover, large-area photovoltaic panels can be economically fabricated. These features potentially make the CdTe thin-film solar cell the leading alternative energy source. However, the record CdTe efficiency (16.5%) is much less than its theoretical maximum efficiency (29%), primarily because the open-circuit voltage (0.845 V) is well below what is expected for its band gap (1.5 eV). The incorporation of an electron reflector is a strategy to improve the open-circuit voltage of solar cells, and thus a strong possibility to improve the efficiency of CdTe thin-film solar cells. An electron reflector is a conduction-band energy barrier at the back surface of the solar cell, which can reduce the recombination due to the electron flow to the back surface. Different methods to create an electron reflector are explained in the thesis: (1) expanded band gap, either an expanded-band-gap layer or a bulk-band-gap reduction, and (2) alteration to the band bending through a reversed back barrier or a heavily-doped back surface. Investigation shows that the expanded-band-gap layer is the most efficient and practical mechanism for an electron reflector, and the combination of any two mechanisms does not yield additional improvement. To have the optimal effect from the electron-reflector strategy, reasonable CdTe lifetime (1 ns or above) and full depletion of the CdTe layer are required to ensure high carrier collection. Furthermore, a good-quality reflector interface between the p-type CdTe layer and the electron-reflector layer is essential. Preliminary experimental evidence has shown that CdTe cells with a ZnTe back layer do have a slightly higher open-circuit voltage. An electron reflector should be particularly beneficial for thin (less than 2 μm) CdTe cells which have a fully-depleted CdTe absorber layer. Thin CdTe cells can also benefit from the optical reflection at the back surface. To investigate the possibility of still higher efficiency, both electron and optical reflection were numerically applied to the CdTe record-cell baseline model. However, there is little improvement for CdTe thicknesses greater than 2 μm. To have the optimal effect from combined electron and optical reflection, cells approximately one micron thick are required. Even without the improvement to the current quality of CdTe, cell efficiency above 19% should be achievable with a 0.2-eV electron reflector. Moreover, efficiency above 20% should be possible if one can also achieve large optical back reflection. At the same time, competitive CdTe cell performance at a thickness as thin as 0.4 um should be possible. This thesis gives a comprehensive numerical investigation of the electron-reflector strategy for CdTe thin-film solar cells.