Long-term analysis and appropriate metrics of climate change in Mongolia
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This study addresses three important issues related to long-term climate change study in Mongolia. Mongolia is one of the biggest land-locked countries in Asia and 75-80 percent of the land is rangeland, which is highly vulnerable to climate change. Climate will affect many sectors critical to the country's economic, social, and ecological welfare. Therefore, it is regionally and globally important to evaluate climate change in Mongolia. Chapter 1 discusses the qualitative and descriptive study on exposure characteristics of the 17 Mongolian meteorological stations, which are part of the Global Climate Observing Network (GCON). The global average temperature anomalies are based in part on the GCON stations' meteorological data. To document the possible exposures surrounding the weather stations, the Mongolian meteorological stations were surveyed during July-August 2005. From the total 17 stations, 47 percent were determined strongly influenced by urban character landscape, 41 percent received some anthropogenic influences, and 12 percent had very little to no anthropogenic influences. Even though the Mongolian meteorological stations' exposure characteristics are better than the European and North American stations' the strict adherence in following WMO guidelines is important and urgently needed. Chapter 2 evaluates the long-term (1961-2005) trends in seasonal and annual surface mean, maximum, minimum temperatures and precipitation. Furthermore, this study compares the long-term mean temperature trends with decadal (1998-2007) trends. This chapter also discusses the extreme climate indices on spatial and temporal scales. According to the results, the long-term linear temperature trends show a clear increasing trend whereas the decadal trends show the decreasing trend mostly in winter and spring. The analysis of extreme indices (1961-2001) indicate that most of the stations frost and icing days are decreased and summer days, tropical nights, monthly maximum value of daily minimum, maximum temperatures and growing season length are increased. Precipitation indices varied substantially and there were no unified temporal and spatial pattern. In addition to that, I am suggesting effective temperature as an appropriate metric to evaluate surface heat change because it counts not only air temperature but also surface humidity. Chapter 3 discusses a case study of grazing intensity on surface energy budgets. To evaluate the land atmospheric interactions over the grassland area depending on the different grazing intensity I conducted the case study over the Shortgrass Steppe Long-Term Ecological Research site on Northern Great Plains of US to imply the findings in semiarid shortgrass steppe of Mongolia. The study site has much of similarities with Mongolian shortgrass steppe and has more frequent, high quality data. This study evaluates the impact of grazing on microclimate and energy budgets in a dry (163 mm) and two near-normal (262 and 260 mm) precipitation years based on continuously measured 20 minute interval data. This study helps to describe surface energy partitioning in semi-arid grasslands that has long history of grazing. The main finding of the study is grazing has a potential impact on the energy partitioning under conditions of higher water availability, but not during dry conditions.
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Social outcomes of Community-based Rangeland Management in post-socialist Mongolia: Influential factors and favorable institutional designs Ulambayar, TungalagCommunity-based rangeland management (CBRM) has been proposed as a promising option to reduce rural poverty and resource degradation in post-socialist Mongolia. To date, research on CBRM in Mongolia has been limited to ...
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