Pressure flow effects on scour at bridges
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Scour caused by the occurrence of pressure flow requires a comprehensive understanding. Pressure flow can be defined as flow in which the low chord of a bridge becomes inundated and the flow through the bridge opening transitions from free surface flow to a pressurized condition, leading to a submerged or partially submerged bridge deck condition. A pressure flow condition often occurs at a bridge during a flood, potentially leading to bridge failure. Scour of bridge foundations (piers and abutments) represents the largest single cause of bridge failure in the United States (ASCE, 1999). Methodical ...