Metabolic engineering and elucidation of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots
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Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) produces many pharmaceutically important chemicals such as vinblastine, vincristine, serpentine, and ajmalicine. They are synthesized through the highly branched and complex terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA) pathway in C. roseus. Among these TIAs, vinblastine and vinblastine, which are solely extracted from C. roseus, are the efficient anti-cancer drugs widely used in the clinic. However, due to the low accumulation of these TIAs within the plant and the industrial infeasibility of production using chemical synthesis, the market price of these drugs ...