Effects of habitat complexity loss on eastern slope Rocky Mountain Brook Trout populations
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Western U.S. rivers are currently influenced by legacy effects of reduced large wood (LW) loading and retention that has led to reduced in-stream habitat complexity. Historical land use practices such as tie-driving, snag removal, and beaver trapping have all contributed to declines in either input or retention of LW in mountain streams. Effects from these practices have persisted over a century after the activities ceased; suggesting streams have entered an alternative stable state. The alternative state is characterized by loss of multi-thread stream reaches, reduced sediment and nutrient ...