Collapse simulations of steel buildings under fire
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Collapse analysis of steel structures under extreme hazards has been placed on the forefront of research in recent decades. This was primarily motivated by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, which caused the complete collapse of the World Trade Centers (WTCs) including WTC-7. The collapse, attributed mainly to fires resulting from the attacks, raised concerns regarding the level of robustness in steel frames when subjected to fire loadings. While complete collapse of steel buildings under elevated temperature is considered a rare event, as no cases have been reported prior to 9/11, ...