Relationships between groundwater use, water table, and recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range
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Excessive levels of herbivory, incision of stream channels, and climate warming are believed to be responsible for the decline of woody deciduous plants in riparian zones in western North America, declines that are likely to be associated with diminished biological diversity. In the northern elk wintering range of Yellowstone National Park, USA, over browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), lowered water tables resulting from stream incision, and loss of activity by beaver (Castor canadensis) have been implicated in the decline of willow (Salix sp.) communities. Reducing elk browsing appears sufficient ...