Copper, zinc, and manganese in beef cattle production : effects of supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, feedlot performance, immunity, and carcass characteristics
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Over a two-year period, crossbred mature beef cows ( n = 178, Year 1; n = 148, Year 2) and young females (n = 43 nulliparous heifers, Year 1; n = 37 primiparous cows, Year 2) grazing in eastern Colorado were used to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, immunity, and cow and calf performance. Cow treatments included: 1) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn); 2) organic (50% organic and 50% inorganic Cu, Zn, and Mn); and 3) inorganic (100% inorganic CuSO4, ZnSO4, and MnSO4) trace minerals. Heifer treatments included: 1) organic, or ...