EPSPS Gene Duplication in Palmer Amaranth : Relative Fitness, Inheritance, and Duplication Mechanism of the Glyphosate Resistance Trait
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Glyphosate resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a weedy plant species that has invaded agricultural fields in at least 25 states, raising the cost of weed control to more than 4x the original cost. In most areas, the resistance is conferred through a gene amplification mechanism in which the target gene of glyphosate, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSPS) is duplicated in the genome 100+ times, resulting in an overproduction of the EPSPS protein. With so much EPSPS enzyme available in each cell, glyphosate only inhibits a fraction of the proteins, leaving the ...